What is Final Dividend - Meaning and Characteristics

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  • 26 Oct 2023
What is Final Dividend?

Dividends are one of the numerous advantages of engaging in stock trading or investing in company stock. A dividend, a portion of profits distributed equally among shareholders by the company, is a rewarding practice. While companies are not obligated to issue dividends, they actively reward their shareholders for their investment in the business through distributing dividends.

A company announces the final dividend after preparing the final accounts, typically during the annual general meeting. The declaration of this dividend, known as the final or year-end dividend, follows the completion of annual accounts. Final dividends, paid annually, generally surpass the interim dividends provided by the company.

Calculating final dividends involves considering the company's net profits, retained earnings, and any legal or financial restrictions. The formula for the final dividend per share is straightforward:

Final Dividend Per Share = (Total Dividend / Number of Outstanding Share)

Suppose you are an investor in XYZ Company, an Indian firm engaged in the manufacturing sector. At the end of the financial year, XYZ Company reports a net profit of INR 50 million after accounting for all expenses, taxes, and depreciation. During its annual general meeting, the company's management proposes a final dividend to be distributed among the shareholders.

After careful consideration and approval by the shareholders, XYZ Company decides to declare a final dividend of INR 5 per share. If you own 1,000 shares in XYZ Company, your dividend entitlement would be INR 5,000 (INR 5 per share multiplied by 1,000 shares).

Here are the key characteristics of final dividends:


Final dividends are typically declared at the end of a financial year after the company's annual financial statements have been prepared and audited. This ensures that the dividend distribution is based on accurate and verified financial figures.

Decision by Shareholders

The declaration of a final dividend is subject to the approval of the company's shareholders during the annual general meeting. Shareholders collectively decide the dividend amount and its distribution.

Not Mandatory

Unlike interim dividends, which can be declared at any point during the year, final dividends are not mandatory. The decision to distribute a final dividend rests on the company's financial health, its profitability, and the approval of shareholders.

Final dividends have their importance. Some of them are as follows:

Return on Investment

For you, as an investor, final dividends serve as a tangible return on your investment. It's a way for the company to share its success with you, the shareholder, and enhance the overall return on your investment.

Indicator of Financial Health

The declaration of a final dividend is seen as a positive sign regarding the financial health and stability of the company. Consistent or increasing final dividends may suggest a profitable and well-managed enterprise.

Investor Confidence

Final dividends can enhance investor confidence. Knowing that a company is willing and able to distribute profits can attract new investors and maintain the loyalty of existing ones.

In Conclusion

Final dividends represent a crucial aspect of a company's and its shareholders' financial relationship. As an investor, understanding the significance of final dividends empowers you to make informed decisions and navigate the financial markets confidently. Remember, the declaration of final dividends is not just a financial transaction; it's a testament to the shared success between you and the companies you invest in.

FAQs on Final Dividend

Shareholders usually receive the dividend in cash, although it may also come in the form of additional shares of stock. The company typically pays out final dividends after the board of directors audits and approves the financial results.

Once a company declares a dividend, it transforms into a debt owed to the members and, as a result, becomes irrevocable. This declaration initiates a legally binding obligation, creating a debt that can be enforced either immediately or in the future.

The primary distinction lies in the timing of their declaration and distribution. Final dividends are declared at the end of a financial year, contingent on the company's annual financial performance, and are presented for approval at the annual general meeting. In contrast, interim dividends can be declared at any point during the fiscal year based on the company's interim financial results.

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