Share Market Basics

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  • 08 Dec 2023
Basics of Share Market Explained

The share market is really important for a country's economy. It's where companies, big and small, offer parts of their business to people who want to invest. It's not just about the famous Bombay Stock Exchange; anyone can get involved. In this article, we'll break down the complications of the Indian share market to confidently explore the world of investing.

A stock market, which is also sometimes called a share market, is like a big money place where people trade different things, like stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and more. The main difference between them is what you can trade. In a stock market, you can trade lots of different financial stuff, making it a big hub for investments. It's a place where regular people and big organisations can buy and sell parts of companies, government bonds, and other money-related things to help with investing and moving money around in the economy.

But when we talk about a share market, we're talking about a smaller part of the stock market. In a share market, it's all about buying and selling parts of companies, which we call shares or stocks. These shares represent a piece of a company, and people can buy or sell them to have a share in that company's money and profits. So, while we sometimes use the words "stock market" and "share market" the real difference is that a stock market has more things to trade, while a share market is all about trading pieces of companies.

The share market is a network of exchanges, clearing companies, and brokerage firms. The share market works in two main parts. They are as follows:

  • Primary Market: It is the marketplace where the companies issue their shares for the first time. This process is called as the IPO (Initial public offering). The companies enter the share market when they launch the IPO and list themselves on the stock exchanges.

  • Secondary Market: It is the marketplace where investors buy and sell shares of the companies listed on stock exchanges via IPOs. Stock exchanges are platforms that facilitate the buying and selling of financial securities.

The working process of the share market involves the following process.

  • First, the companies issue the shares in the primary market. The interested investors can apply for the IPO and buy the shares. The company receives the funds generated from the sale of shares. After the IPO, these shares are listed on the stock exchanges.

  • The listed shares are now available in the secondary market, where trading takes place. The investors who purchased the shares in the IPO can sell the shares in the secondary market.

  • Brokerage firms are financial institutions that facilitate the buying and selling of shares. They work with the stock exchanges to offer these services. The broker receives the buy or sell order placed by an individual. Then he will find a suitable match for the order.

  • Once the right match is available, the broker executes the transaction. The broker provides the necessary information regarding the transaction to the stock exchange, buyer, and the seller. Nowadays, the entire process is carried out electronically.

  • The stock exchange authorises and completes the transaction. The buyer shall receive the shares of the stock he purchased. The seller receives due funds equal to the present market value of the shares.

In this way, the process continues in the share market. The share market keeps working to facilitate the trading of shares.

We buy shares in companies to help our money grow over time. Some people worry that investing in shares is risky, but lots of research has proved that if you pick the right shares and hang on to them for a while, like five to ten years, they can make your money grow even faster than things like houses or gold, and they can beat the rising cost of living (inflation). So, investing in the right shares for the long run can be a smart way to make your money grow.

Stockbrokers used to congregate around Banyan trees to make stock dealings. They had no choice but to move from one location to another as the number of brokers grew. Finally, in 1854, they moved to Dalal Street, which is now home to Asia's oldest stock market, the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). It is India's first stock exchange and has played a significant role in the Indian financial markets since then. Even today, the BSE Sensex is one of the benchmarks used to assess the strength of the Indian economy and financial system.

The National Stock Exchange, or NSE, was founded in 1993. Trading on both exchanges - NSE and BSE - evolved from an open outcry system to an automated trading environment within a few years.

This demonstrates that Indian stock markets have a long and illustrious history. Yet, on the surface, especially when considering investing in the stock market, it might appear to be a maze. However, once you get started, you'll see that the investment principles aren't that difficult. One of the basics of investment fundamentals is financial planning. Read more about the importance of financial planning.

Term Definition
Sensex includes the top 30 listed stocks on the BSE in terms of market capitalisation.
Demat Account
A Demat account is an online repository of shares and other securities.
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the market regulator. It is responsible for monitoring all the transactions and other activities of the all market participants.
It refers to the process of buying and selling stocks.
Stock Exchange
It is a platform where the buying and selling of securities takes place.
A stock index is a collection of selected stocks. It is used to track the performance of the whole market or a particular market segment.
A collection of various assets of an investor. It includes various assets like gold, equities, funds, derivatives, real estate, cash equivalents, bonds, etc.
Bull Market
A bull market is the condition of a share market in which prices keep rising.
Bear Market
A bear market is a long andng, continuous period where asset prices fall sharply.
It is a collection of the top 50 firms listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE).
Stock Market Broker
A SEBI-registered individual or firm that handles transactions, including buying and selling stocks, on behalf of their customers.
Bid Price
The bid price is the maximum amount a buyer will pay to purchase a specific number of shares.
Ask Price
The lowest price at which a seller wants to sell his shares is the ask price.
Initial public offering, or IPO, refers to selling securities to the public for the first time.
Equity is the amount a shareholder would get when a company is liquidated.
A dividend is a cash or another benefit that a company gives its shareholders. It can be distributed in a number of ways, like cash, stocks, or another kind of payment.
Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) is India's largest and oldest stock exchange. It was founded in 1875.
The National Stock Exchange is the fourth largest stock exchange globally in terms of trading volume. It introduced electronic trading in India.
Call Put Option
An investor may acquire the underlying securities by using a call option. They may sell shares of the underlying security by using a put option.
Types of Stock Market
There are 2 types of stock markets: Primary Market: It is the place where companies issue their shares and other securities for the first time. Secondary Market: Here, investors trade securities among themselves. The companies issuing the shares are not involved in the process.
Ask and Close
Ask price is the minimum price a seller would accept for the stock. The closing price refers to the final price at which a stock trades in a trading session.
Moving Average
It is a stock indicator frequently used in technical analysis to provide an average price that is updated continuously. A rising moving average suggests an uptrend. A descending moving average suggests a downward trend.


Understanding the basics of stock market investment may seem daunting at first, but it will empower you to make informed choices. Additionally, stock exchanges like the BSE and NSE have played critical roles in global finance throughout history. Over the long term, stocks can provide inflation-beating returns, making them a more attractive investment than real estate or gold.

However, determining the size and type of investments requires taking into account factors such as financial goals, age, and risk tolerance. Moreover, you can invest effectively in the stock market by conducting thorough research, staying current on market trends, and avoiding short-term thinking. Also, by leveraging the expertise and services of Kotak Securities, you can navigate the stock market with confidence and work towards securing your financial future.

Read More:

Go Digit IPO

Stock market trading refers to the buying and selling of securities in the stock market.

Understanding the share market takes time and effort. It’s always a good idea to do ample research and understand the risks involved before investing money. Here are some ways that will help you understand the share market better:

  • Online resources: Refer to free online courses and tutorials about the share market.
  • Books: There are plenty of beginner’s guides available in the form of published books, if you are a bookworm.
  • Professional advice: Consult a financial broker or advisor for guidance.

The S&P BSE SENSEX (also known as the BSE 30 or simply the SENSEX) is a stock market index that comprises of 30 well-established and financially sound companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) in India. It is considered as a barometer of the Indian economy and is the most widely tracked equity index in India.

Nifty 50 is an index of 50 companies listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India. It is a market capitalisation weighted index, which means that the weight of each company in the index is proportional to its market capitalisation. The Nifty 50 index is considered as a benchmark index for the Indian stock market and is widely used to measure the performance of the Indian stock market.

The 4 types of share markets in India are primary share market, secondary market, equity market, and derivative market.

You need to consider certain factors while deciding how many shares of stocks you should buy. These include the availability of capital, diversification and analysing whether you need more shares or not.

Beginners must buy shares of blue-chip companies that are dominant players in their segment.

Essentially, they are the same. Both represent your ownership of a company. However, ‘stock’ refers to part-ownership in one or more companies and ‘share’ refers to the unit of ownership in a single company.

Choose stock basis profitability, risk, valuation, etc. You can find these analytics on a trading website.

Equity shares of listed companies are traded in stock markets and other instruments like index futures, stock futures, VIX futures, etc.

When stock prices rise, and there is an uptrend, it is called a bull market. Conversely, if stock prices fall and there is a downtrend, it is called a bear market.

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