Debt Vs Equity Fund

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  • 28 Dec 2023
Debt Vs Equity Fund

Key Highlights

  • Debt funds offer stable returns with lower risk, while equity funds have the potential for higher returns but higher risk.
  • Debt funds generate income through interest, while equity funds generate income through dividends and capital gains.

A debt fund is like a money pool that holds two kinds of investments – debt (like bonds) and equity (like stocks) – all in one place. When people invest in this fund, they get a mix of stable things that pay interest regularly (debt) and a chance for their money to grow more (equity). How much goes into each type depends on the fund's aim. The part in stocks hopes to make more money over time, while the stable part gives a steady income through interest. This fund is made for people who want to balance their investments, benefit from both stable and growing options and not put all their money into just one thing.

An Equity Mutual Fund is like a big pot where many people combine their money to buy shares of different companies. When you invest in this fund, you become a part-owner of those companies. The goal is to grow your money over time as the companies do well. The fund manager, who is like the boss, decides which shares to buy and sell to make the most profit for everyone in the fund. It's a way for people to invest in the stock market without needing a lot of money or knowing a lot about individual stocks.

Characteristics Debt Funds Equity Funds
Basic Characteristics
Invest in fixed-income securities, minimising defaults. Common holdings include non-convertible debentures, corporate bonds, and government bonds.
Invest in equity shares and linked instruments, with diversified portfolios to mitigate volatility.
Tax Liabilities
Tax rate of 20% with indexation for holdings over three years; taxed as per income slab for holdings under three years.
Long-term equity funds (held over 12 months) attract no capital gains tax; short-term equity funds (12 months or less) are taxed at a flat rate of 15%.
Risk Factors
Considered relatively low-risk, but not entirely risk-free. Sensitive to interest rate changes affecting corporate bond prices.
Deemed riskier due to market volatility, influenced by economic factors such as tax rates, inflation, and currency changes.
Provide steady and stable returns, especially during market instability.
Likely to yield better long-term returns, responsive to market performance and fluctuations.

In comparing Debt Mutual Funds to Equity Mutual Funds, investors should consider factors like their risk tolerance, investment horizon, and financial objectives to make well-informed decisions.

Investors often face difficulty selecting between debt and equity funds, offering potential returns but accompanied by distinct advantages and drawbacks. It's crucial to thoroughly understand these factors before making a decision. Careful selection of equity funds is vital to manage risks and volatility.

Consider the following factors when deciding between debt and equity funds:

  • Investment Duration: Customize your choice based on the time you need funds. Debt funds work well for shorter durations (up to five years), while equity funds are better for longer investment horizons (at least seven years).

  • Potential Returns: Maintain realistic expectations regarding returns. On average, long-term potential returns are around 9% for debt funds and 16% for equity funds, each with its level of risk and uncertainty.

  • Risk Factor: Understand the risk potential for both types. Debt funds offer less risk, a lower chance of capital loss, and reduced potential returns. In contrast, equity funds involve more risk, a higher chance of capital loss, and greater potential returns.

  • Investment Objectives: Align your choice with your investment goals. Debt funds are suitable for income generation with guaranteed returns, while equity funds may be more fitting for wealth creation.

  • Tax Consequences: Consider tax implications. Equity funds have zero taxes for investments held over 12 months. Debt funds are taxed for short-term gains (before three years) and long-term gains (after three years with indexation), with no distinction after three years compared to equity funds.

  • Lock-in Duration: Debt funds are highly liquid with no lock-in period but attract short-term capital gains tax if closed before three years. Equity funds have a minimum lock-in period of three years.


Selecting between debt and equity funds is a complex decision, given the multitude of differences between the two. To make an informed choice, start by defining your investment objectives and carefully considering various parameters, ensuring a thorough understanding before making any trading decision.

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