How is An IPO (Initial Public Offering) Priced?

  •  8 min
  • 0
  • 06 Oct 2023
How is An IPO (Initial Public Offering) Priced?

Key Highlights

  • The initial price at which the company sells its shares to the public is like setting the opening price for a game at an auction. It's the first thing people see.

  • To decide this starting price, experts look at everything the company does and figure out how much it's really worth.

  • The IPO price is usually set a bit lower than what experts say the company is worth.

  • Money Goals: The company also thinks about how much money it wants to make from the IPO. It's like planning how much money you need for a big project.

  • The IPO price is set right, the company's stock can go up after it goes public. This is good for the company and for the people who bought shares early.

In simple terms, IPO pricing is like a clever chess move. The company wants to pick a price that gets people interested and also helps the company get the money it needs to grow. It's a really important step in this financial journey.

Setting the initial price at which the company will sell its shares to investors is a crucial step in the IPO process.Prior to deciding on the IPO price, the firm and its underwriters, who frequently are investment banks, conduct a thorough analysis of the company's financial state, potential for growth, position in the industry, and level of competition. The evaluation of the company's value is determined with the help of this investigation. The goal is to select a price that accurately reflects the value of the company. Usually, the price per share for an IPO is less than the anticipated market value. This is done to attract investors' interest and spread word about the offering. Additional factors that influence the IPO price include the status of the market, investor demand, and the amount of capital the company intends to raise. The company sells its shares to institutional and retail investors on the day of the IPO at the pre-set IPO price. final ipo

Following that, trading in the shares starts on a public stock exchange. The open market's supply and demand will then determine its price. The stock price may increase above the IPO price if the IPO is a success and demand is substantial. In contrast, the stock price could drop if demand is lower than anticipated or market circumstances change. Both the company and its original investors may be significantly impacted by the stock's performance after the IPO.

As in many other nations, the final IPO price is determined in India by thorough procedure that takes into account a number of factors. In India, the final IPO price is determined as follows:

1. Company appraisal: The company goes through a thorough appraisal procedure before going public. The intrinsic value of the company is calculated using valuation techniques such as discounted cash flows, comparable company research, and precedent transactions. This is how the valuation of an IPO is calculated using this value as a starting point.

2. Process for Building a Book: Book-building is a common component of IPO pricing in India. With this approach, the company and its underwriters determine the level of investor interest in the IPO shares. Investor bids must fall within the company's predetermined price range.

3. Investor Bidding: Within the predetermined price range, institutional and individual investors place their bids. Investors submit their bids throughout the bidding process, which normally lasts a few days, detailing the number of shares they desire to purchase as well as the amount they are willing to pay.

4. Value Learning: The ultimate IPO price is determined using the demand generated throughout the bidding process. The price at which the highest demand is seen determines the final price. This ensures that the pricing of the IPO accurately reflects both investor interest and market conditions.

5. Allotment: Following the selection of the purchase price, shares are given to investors. There are typically restrictions on how many shares retail investors can buy. but institutional investors may receive a bigger allocation.

The objective is to find a compromise between increasing the amount of capital raised for the business and making sure that investors are prepared to invest at the suggested price.

Have you ever wondered how companies decide the price of their Initial Public Offering (IPO)? Well, there are several important things that they consider. Let's break them down in simple terms.

Market Situation: Think of the stock market like a big roller coaster. When it's going up and up, we call it a "bull market." Companies can ask for more money during a bull market because people are excited about investing. But when the roller coaster is going down, which we call a "bear market," companies have to be careful and ask for less money to attract investors.

Demand from Investors: This is like how popular a new video game or toy is. If lots of people want it, the price can be high. If not many people are interested, the price needs to be lower to get them to buy it.

Financial Performance: Imagine you're buying a car. You'd want to know if it's a good car, right? Investors want to know if a company is doing well. They look at things like how much money the company makes, how much profit it earns, and how much cash it has.

Industry and Competition: Some companies are in really cool industries, like making video games or electric cars. These companies can ask for more money because they're in high-demand businesses. We also look at other companies in the same industry to see if the price is fair.

Timing and Market: Think of this like the weather. If it's a sunny day (a good economy and strong stock market), companies can ask for more. But if it's stormy (a bad economy and weak stock market), they have to be careful.

Regulations: Rules are important. Companies and the people helping them with the IPO (called underwriters) must follow the law. It's like playing a game and making sure everyone follows the rules.

Growth Prospects: Imagine you have a tree in your backyard, and it's growing really fast. That's exciting, right? Companies with big plans for the future can ask for more money because they promise to grow a lot.

So, pricing an IPO is like trying to find the right price for a toy to sell at a garage sale. You want to make sure it's a good price so people will buy it, but you also want to get as much money as you can. Balancing these things is what companies have to figure out when they decide on the price for their IPO.

So an IPO pricing is a difficult procedure.The balance between maximizing the amount of capital obtained and ensuring investor demand and market success must be carefully considered.

Here are three serious threats to think about before investing in an IPO:

  • Price Uncertainty and Volatility:

1. Market swings: The stock's initial trading days may see considerable price fluctuations due to the high volatility of IPO prices. Soon after the IPO, investors can observe big price rises or decreases.

2. Little historical information: It can be difficult to evaluate newly public firms' stability and forecast their future financial performance because they sometimes don't have a long history of financial performance. This ambiguity may influence price volatility.

  • Lack of Information:

1. Limited Disclosure: Companies going public are required to provide certain financial information, but this data may be limited compared to established public companies. Investors may have incomplete information to make informed decisions.

2. Quiet Period: After an IPO, there is typically a "quiet period" during which the company and underwriters cannot provide detailed information or recommendations about the stock. This lack of ongoing guidance can leave investors in the dark.

  • Inner circle Trading and Lock-Up Periods:

1. Lock-Up Periods: Insiders, such as firm executives and early investors, frequently have their shares subject to lock-up agreements, which foreclose their ability to sell their shares for a predetermined amount of time following the IPO. When these lock-up periods end, a wave of insider selling may cause the stock price to decline sharply.

2. Prospective Overvaluation: Hype and demand may occasionally cause IPO prices to rise, which can lead to overvaluation. Insider trading after the lock-up period might cause the stock price to decline, which could result in losses for IPO investors.

In this regard, there are risks connected to investing in an IPO, including market volatility, incomplete information, and the possibility of insider selling. Before investing in an IPO, investors must undertake extensive research, thoroughly evaluate the company's prospects, and take these risks into account.


An Initial Public Offering (IPO) pricing process is complicated and diverse, requiring careful consideration of numerous aspects. There is not one strategy that works for everyone, but a competitively priced IPO can be advantageous to both the firm going public and its investors. It gives investors a chance to share in the company's success while enabling the business to raise funds for growth and expansion. However, choosing the proper balance is essential since pricing an IPO too high or too low might have negative effects. The process of pricing an IPO is ultimately a delicate balancing act that calls for knowledge, research, and a complete understanding of the financial markets.


Evaluating IPO price involves analyzing company financials, market conditions, and investor demand. It often includes methods like book-building or valuation models to set a price that balances the issuer's fundraising goals and investor appetite.

The main benefit is having access to a lot of money, which enables expansion, growth, and debt reduction. A small company's marketability, legitimacy, and visibility can all be improved via IPOs.

Investing in an IPO entails risks such as price volatility, a lack of historical data, and uncertainty regarding the performance of the firm after the IPO. Investors must carry out exhaustive investigations and evaluate.

In the US and India, respectively, the SEC and SEBI regulate initial public offerings (IPOs). To safeguard investors, these organizations control disclosures, financial reporting, and fair practices.

A network of underwriters, brokerage houses, and internet trading platforms is often used to sell IPO shares. Before they start trading on stock exchanges, IPO shares are available for purchase in the primary market by investors.

Enjoy Zero brokerage on ALL Intraday Trades
+91 -