What is Currency Appreciation & What Causes it?

  •  6 min
  • 0
  • 06 Oct 2023
What is Currency Appreciation & What Causes it?

Key Takeaways

  • Currency appreciation is the rise of the value of domestic currency in contrast to other foreign currencies.

  • Any country's currency appreciation plays an important role in backing or enhancing the economy.

  • There are many factors & incidents occurring due to currency appreciation or depreciation which affect the country's economy.

Currency appreciation in the currency market refers to an increase in the value of one currency in relation to another currency. It occurs when the exchange rate for a currency rises over time.

Simultaneously, the currency appreciation benefits importers as they have to pay less in domestic currency for imported goods. But, it can affect exporters as their goods become more expensive for foreign buyers which can also lower the demand. On the positive side, you can say that the domestic economy, appreciation makes foreign travel and education cheaper. Central banks often intervene when excessive appreciation threatens economic growth. Overall, measured appreciation aligned with fundamentals is considered optimal for an economy.

The function of currency appreciation in the forex market can be explained as the appreciation in currency that occurs when the value of one currency rises relative to another currency in the foreign exchange market. It is the opposite of currency depreciation.

Appreciation happens when the demand for a currency increases or if its supply decreases in the share market. As a currency appreciates, more units of the second currency can be bought with one unit of the first currency. For example, if the Indian rupee appreciates against the US dollar, INR will buy more dollars than before. Currency appreciation impacts trade flows and the domestic economy, so central banks actively manage appreciation trends accordingly.

Here is an example of currency appreciation: Consider the exchange rate between the Indian Rupee (INR) and the US Dollar (USD):

  • Initial exchange rate: 1 USD = 70 INR

  • This means 1 US Dollar can buy 70 Indian Rupees.

  • After 6 months, the exchange rate becomes:

  • 1 USD = 65 INR

In this case, the INR has appreciated or strengthened against the USD, since now 1 Dollar can buy only 65 Rupees compared to 70 Rupees earlier.

This appreciation of INR indicates that:

  • Demand for INR currency has increased relative to the USD
  • INR has become more valuable compared to the USD value
  • Imports to India becoming cheaper for businesses
  • Indian exports becoming more expensive for foreign buyers This example demonstrates how a currency appreciates in the forex market due to demand-supply factors and the impact it has on trade such as import or export.

Some of the Impact you can observe due to the appreciation of the currency is as follows:

1. Expensive Exports

When any national currency appreciates in terms of its value, then its products become pricier for foreign buyers. This can lead to a decrease in exports, harming industries reliant on international sales, potentially causing job losses etc.

2. Affect on the Tourism Industry

Due to costly exchange rates, there will be a huge challenge for foreigners to manage their travel expenses in that nation. This can impact the tourism industry. Fewer visitors can lead to lower revenues for businesses in the hospitality, transportation, and tourism sectors.

3. Lower International Debt

With the appreciation in currency, the country can reduce its cost of servicing foreign-denominated debt. This can be beneficial for governments and businesses that have borrowed in foreign currencies, as they need to allocate fewer resources to debt payments.

You should also focus on both sides of the coin for the appreciation in the currency, As both factors play a key role in managing the economy of a country.

Advantages of Currency Appreciation

  • It boosts the purchasing power of domestic currency in foreign trade and markets.
  • It helps lower imported inflation, especially in import-dependent economies, thereby keeping domestic prices in check.
  • Citizens gain from lower costs of foreign trips, education and other overseas spending with a stronger home currency.
  • A stronger domestic currency makes imports less expensive as fewer units are needed to buy foreign goods and services.

Disadvantages of Currency Appreciation

  • It can decrease in export demand
  • Imports becoming cheaper can hurt domestic import-competing industries as local production costs are higher.
  • Appreciation reduces returns for foreign investors and discourages foreign capital inflows over time.
  • Possibly it can widen the trade deficit gap of an economy.

Some of the cause for the appreciation of the currency is mentioned below:

1. Strong Economic Fundamentals When a country exhibits strong economic performance, including high GDP growth, low inflation, and stable fiscal and monetary policies, it can attract foreign investment. This increased demand for the country's currency can drive its appreciation.

2. Interest Rate Differentials Higher interest rates in a country relative to others can make its assets, such as bonds and savings accounts, more attractive to foreign investors. To invest in these assets, foreign investors need to buy the country's currency, increasing its demand and value.

3. Foreign Investment When foreign investors pour money into a country through direct investment or the stock market, they often need to convert their currency into the local currency. This surge in demand can cause the local currency to appreciate.

4. Trade Surpluses A trade surplus occurs when a country exports more than it imports. The resulting excess demand for the country's currency by foreign buyers of its products can lead to appreciation.

5. Speculation* Another major reason for currency appreciation is that traders and investors often speculate on future currency movements. If they believe a currency will strengthen, they buy it in anticipation of profiting from the appreciation. This speculative activity can contribute to currency appreciation.

6. Government Intervention In some cases, governments or central banks may actively intervene in currency markets to influence exchange rates. They might buy their own currency and sell foreign currencies to boost its value or implement certain policies which can affect the currency value.

Here is a comparison between currency appreciation and currency depreciation

Factors Currency Appreciation Currency Depreciation
MeaningIt means the Rise in value of currency compared to other currenciesIt means a decline in the value of a currency compared to other currencies
Driving FactorsIncreased demand for the currency and simultaneously Reduced supply of the currency.It is the opposite as there will be reduced demand for the currency and increased supply of the currency
Effect on TradeWorsens the trade deficitImproves the trade deficit
Impact on inflationIt can help control inflation in the economyThis leads to higher import inflation
Effect on ImportNegatively impacts domestic import-competing industriesIt helps domestic import-competing industries
Foreign InvestorsReduces returns for foreign investorsIncreases returns for foreign investors


Therefore as you know currency appreciation is the increase in value of a currency while depreciation is the decline in currency value in the forex market. We have covered the maximum part of the effect, causes and more on appreciation in currency. Now you can evaluate different currencies to know their value in the currency market.

FAQs on Currency Appreciation

Some of the causes of the currency appreciation are the strong economic fundamentals, interest rate change, adjustment in foreign investment, trade surpluses, speculation, government intervention, commodity prices, etc.

Currency appreciation can have various effects, including making exports more expensive, reducing tourism revenues, lowering the cost of servicing foreign debt, reducing import costs, and impacting foreign exchange reserves.

The effect of currency appreciation is that the country's exports are more expensive for foreign buyers, potentially leading to a decrease in exports. Similarly, it can make imports cheaper, which may lead to an increase in imports.

In the market, businesses and investors can use various strategies, such as hedging, diversifying their holdings, and closely monitoring economic indicators and exchange rate trends, to manage the risks associated with currency appreciation.

Enjoy Zero brokerage on ALL Intraday Trades
+91 -