What is Economic Stimulus?

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  • 01 Nov 2023
What is Economic Stimulus?

Key Highlights

  • Economic stimulus is a targeted fiscal and monetary policy aimed at stimulating an economic response from the private sector.

  • In order to compensate for the loss of general demand, economic stimulus relies on encouraging private-sector spending.

  • Fiscal policies steer tax and government expenditure to areas that the legislature thinks will stimulate the economy, which drives additional forms of economic stimulus.

Economic stimulus refers to a combination of measures that the government has taken in order to tackle an economic downturn. A reduction of interest rates, acquisitive easing, an increase in public spending, etc., are some examples of measures adopted by governments.

The government will take a number of measures to boost private sector consumption and encourage spending when it foresees recession. Therefore, an increase in consumer spending is a means to stimulate the economy. A preventive or remedial measure may be an economic stimulus. The Reserve Bank of India, in cooperation with the Government of India, is supervising economic stimulus measures in India. A reduction in interest rates, quantitative easing, increased government spending, and so on are some economic stimulus examples of measures taken by governments.

Governments use different tools at their disposal to influence the pace and composition of economic growth during a typical business cycle. State and local governments can also pursue projects or policies stimulating private-sector investment.

A targeted and conservative approach to expansionary economic policy is an economic stimulus. The economic stimulus should direct government deficit spending, tax cuts, lower interest rates, or new lending creation to key sectors of the economy and take advantage of powerful multiplier effects that will indirectly increase private sector consumption and investment expenditures instead of using monetary and fiscal policy for replacing private sector expenditure.

According to economic stimulus advocates, this increased public spending will then lift the economy out of recession. It is aimed at achieving this stimulus-response so that the private sector can do most of its work to fight the recession and avoid any risks such as hyperinflation or government defaults, which could come with massive public deficits or extreme monetary policy. The stimulus deficit spending could, in fact, pay for itself through higher tax revenues resulting from faster growth by stimulating private sector growth.

A combination of monetary and fiscal policy is an economic stimulus.

1. Monetary Policy

The Central Bank of the State monitors it. Monetary policy is concerned with regulating the supply and interest rate of money in an economy. Monetary policy has a direct impact on inflation, employment, and GDP growth.

In order to regulate monetary policy, the NCB regulates liquidity in the market. The statutory liquidity ratio maintained by other banks in the central bank increases economic liquidity as a result of reducing the cash reverse ratio. As a result, liquidity is reduced if reserve requirement ratios are increased. Similarly, liquidity is affected by the adjustment in the interest rate that the Central Bank offers, purchases, and sells government securities on the free market.

2. Fiscal Policy

The government controls fiscal policy, which also deals with public spending and taxation. Public expenditure refers to infrastructure projects, healthcare, and education, which they will have to bear in the financial year. Economic Impacts of Economic Stimulus - H2 The impacts of economic stimulus are as follows.

1. Government bonds on the market for sale or purchase

The Central Bank can either enhance or reduce the amount of money in consumers' hands when it sells or buys government bonds on the free market. In an economic recession, the Central Bank buys public debt on the free market and puts more money into consumers' hands that is likely to be used for consumption or investment.

2. Enhancing the banks' reserve requirements

The NCB allows banks to increase their lending capacity or force them to reduce their lending capacity by adjusting their capital reserve requirements. The central bank will reduce the reserve requirement in times of recession, and banks will be able to lend more money. By raising consumption and investment, more lending can stimulate the economy.

3. Modifying the interest rate of the central bank

The Central Bank aims to influence demand for loans and savings by reducing its interest rate. A low-interest rate will encourage people and businesses to borrow more money, thus increasing their spending during a recession. Moreover, low-interest rates will reduce the incentive to save money and increase consumption.

4. Increasing or reducing the rate of taxation

The government may have a role to play in influencing the consumption and savings habits of consumers and businesses by raising or lowering tax rates. A reduction in tax rates would provide more disposable income to individuals and businesses, which can be used for consumption or investment during a recession. Increasing consumption increases demand and creates more jobs for businesses. This increases the demand for labour and leads to increased wages, which, in turn, drives consumption through a virtuous cycle.

5. Increased or decreased government spending on projects

The government is able to create jobs and economic growth through increased or decreased public investment in projects. In times of recession, the government can increase spending on certain projects to stimulate the economy. The construction of public transport infrastructure is an example. Spending on materials and equipment to support the project is expected to increase the employment of workers in the project. This leads to an increase in consumption.

There are several arguments against the commencement of stimulus packages for the economy. There is an underlying reason why the stimulus packages are financed by government debt. The risk for the government of a country to default increases with high debt levels. There is little chance that a large, developed economy will go bankrupt. However, increased government debt is a serious threat to small and fragile countries.

Second, certain factions believe that private investment could be negatively affected by government infusions of liquidity. This is due to the rising costs of labour, which in turn leads to increased production costs and reduced profits for businesses. In the case of wasted projects with low returns, the stimulus package can also be used to circumvent the purpose of the stimulus package.


The saving grace for many countries in trouble could be an economic boost, but it comes with risks. For many countries, however, this is a relief as they seek to strengthen their economies and strengthen their ties with the rest of the world. You can learn more about stock market, share market technical terms, etc from our knowledge centre.

FAQs on Economic Stimulus

Fiscal stimulus is an increase in government consumption or a reduction of taxes. In contrast, monetary stimulus is meant to lower interest rates or increase the amount of cash and credit.

Decreases in interest rates, quantitative easing, rising government spending, and so on are some examples of measures taken by governments.

Mixed economies, capitalism, and socialistic economies constitute three kinds of economic systems.

The economic cycle has four phases: expansion (real GDP is growing), peak (real GDP stops growing and starts dropping), contraction (real GDP is shrinking), and trough (real GDP ends shrinking and starts growing).

The economy is based on the creation of networks of markets composed of buyers and sellers.

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