Differences Between FPO and IPO

  •  4 min read
  • 0
  • 19 Apr 2024
Differences Between FPO and IPO

Key Highlights:

  • IPO occurs when a company goes public for the first time
  • FPO occurs when an already-listed company issues fresh shares

Companies across industry verticals look to raise funds from time to time to sustain operations, fund expansion, invest in new technologies, and encash market opportunities, among other things. An initial public offering (IPO) and a follow-on public offer (FPO) are two ways through which companies can raise capital. Though they may look the same at first glance, they aren’t. This blog captures the key differences between an IPO and an FPO.

When a company offers its shares to the public for the first time, it is known as an IPO. Post IPO, a company gets listed on stock exchanges, either the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) or the National Stock Exchange (NSE) or both.

The company offering the shares is known as the issuer. Once the IPO is done, the company's shares are traded in the secondary market. IPO is a complex process that warrants a high level of expertise. A company going for an IPO seeks help from external parties such as investment banks, underwriters, promoters, etc. There are two types of IPO, namely:

  • Fixed price issue: In this type of IPO, the company's shares have a fixed price, as mentioned in the offer document. Here, you know the share's price beforehand, and the company fixes it with the help of a merchant banker or underwriter.

  • Book-building issue: In this type of IPO, a company doesn't fix the price of shares but has price bands. The price is discovered during the IPO process as per the demand.

In an FPO, a company already listed on the exchange offers new shares to investors, just like Vodafone Idea. The telecom major has come out with its FPO with an issue size of ₹18,000 crores.

To know more about the Vodafone FPO, watch this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihLh5rLn2Jg

FPOs are of two types, namely:

  • Dilutive: A company offers more shares to raise equity or to reduce debt in a dilutive FPO.

  • Non-dilutive: In a non-dilutive FPO, the company's promoters and other large shareholders sell their existing shares. In this type of FPO, no new shares are created, and the proceeds received go to the shareholders placing it, and not the company.

Now that you know the meaning of an IPO and FPO, let’s look at their differences. The table captures the key differences between them on various parameters:

Parameter IPO FPO
IPO happens when a company is going public for the first time.
FPO occurs when a company has already completed its IPO and is listed on the exchange.
An IPO is the initial step in a company's journey to becoming public.
A company goes for FPO when it needs more capital after an IPO to fund various corporate needs.
Price Determination
The price is generally determined through an underwriting process involving market conditions, valuation, and negotiation.
Pricing of FPO shares is determined based on investors' demand, the company's financial performance, and market conditions.
Offer Size
Offer size is usually large in an IPO as the company aims to raise substantial capital for growth and expansion.
An FPO's offer size is generally less as it intends to meet specific funding needs.
Regulatory Requirement
Companies going for an IPO need to meet stringent regulatory requirements such as financial reporting, corporate governance standards, and disclosure obligations, among others.
FPOs are subject to fewer regulatory requirements compared to IPOs. However, they are still required to comply with certain regulatory laws.
Risks Involved
As the company doesn't have any past record of share performance, IPOs are a high-risk investment option.
FPOs are relatively less risky as you can analyse the performance of a company's shares in the past.
Complexity in Investment Decision
IPO investments are generally more complex as you need to evaluate a company in detail and go through its red herring prospectus.
In FPOs, you have information on how a company has performed after its IPO. This makes investment decisions less complicated.

IPO or FPO: What Should You Opt For?

Choosing between an IPO and an FPO depends primarily on your risk tolerance. You can subscribe to a company's IPO if you have a high-risk appetite. On the other hand, if you don't want to take too much risk on your investment, you can opt for an FPO. That said, with both, you must never take a blind call. Evaluate a company's fundamentals well before subscribing.

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute financial advice. Investors should conduct their own research and consult with financial professionals before making any investment decisions.

FAQs on the difference between FPO and IPO

In an FPO, a company already listed on the exchange offers shares to the public. On the other hand, in an IPO, a company going public for the first time offers its shares to the public. Also, FPOs are relatively less risky than IPOs.

FPOs have pros and cons. While they help a company raise additional capital, the announcement of a FPO can sometimes lead to negative market reactions.

Enjoy Zero brokerage on ALL Intraday Trades
+91 -